Role of Early Tracheostomy in the Management of Severe Head Injury
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the role of early and late tracheostomy in patients presenting with severe head injuries.
Material and Methods: This randomized controlled trial study was conducted in the department of neurosurgery, Lahore General Hospital Lahore from March 2018 to August 2018, after taking approval from the ethical committee. A total of one hundred and thirty patients was divided randomly into early (within three days) and late
(after three days) tracheostomy groups. After tracheostomy, data regarding acute physiology, age and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II), the total number of days since ventilation, tracheostomy, weaning, discharge from ICU and hospital, complications and mortality were noted. All the data was entered and analyzed with SPSS
23.0. Quantitative variables were presented as mean and standard deviation, qualitative variables were presented as numbers and percentage. The Chi-square test was applied. A p-value of ≤0.05 was considered significant.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.13 ± 2.53 years. There were 84 males (64.61%) and 46 females (35.38%) in the study. The duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and stay in hospital for early and late tracheostomy groups were 25.68 ± 2.94 vs. 33.37 ± 3.32 days, 29.42 ± 2.97 vs. 38.54 ± 3.80 days and 37.20 ± 2.98 vs. 47.15 ± 3.84 days respectively. Four patients (3.08%) and seven patients (5.38%) suffered from mortality.
Conclusion: Early tracheostomy among the patients presenting with severe head injuries was associated with a better outcome than late tracheostomy.
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