Evaluation of Nurses Competency about Surgical Hand Scrubbing

  • UZMA KHURSHEED Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore
  • MUHAMMAD HUSSAIN Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore
  • SYED AMIR GILANI Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore
Keywords: Operating Room


Objective:  Hands play a significant role in organism transmission. Poor hand hygiene practices in health care settings lead to nosocomial infection. Aseptic practice is the cornerstone of current surgery, thus rigid adherence to prescribed sterile techniques in the operating room is essential.The objective of this study was to evaluate nurses’ competencies regarding surgical hand scrubbing.

Material and Methods: Cross sectional observational design was used. The study was conducted in operating rooms in a tertiary care hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.This setting contains total seven operating rooms with 250 registered nurses. Sample size calculated through Slovin’s formula. Sample size was 154. Convenient sampling technique was used. An adopted checklist was used for observing the nurses’ practices of hand scrubbing. Data was analyzed in Statistical Software of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.

Results:  Majority of nurses (72.7%) were between 21-30 years age group. Only 38.3% participants wore a face mask and surgical cap correctly and 61.7% did not wear correctly. Majority participants, 76% had short nails.All participants (100%) removed nail polish, artificial nails, and jewelry before scrubbing. Majority of participants applied a proper amount of Povidone iodine.

Conclusion:  Operational hand scrub is very vital component of operative procedure. Results of this study showed inadequate practices of nurses in the operating room, which was overall 77%. There is a need to improve nurses’ practices so, periodically audit, manager supervision and feedback, workshops should be organized.


1. Asaad AM, Badr SA. Surgical site infections in developing countries: The current burden and future challenges. Clin Microbiol. 2016; 5 (6): 1-2.
2. Paudel A, Bista B. Compliance of surgical hand scrub in operation theatre of teaching hospital, Chitwan. J Chit Med Sci. 2019; 31; 9 (1): 36-40.
3. Abdollahi L, Tabrizi JS, Jodati A, Safaie N, Moradi-Joo M, Daemi A. Quality of surgical scrub in a heart hospital: Do not take it for granted. J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017; 9 (3): 164.
4. Bhasme AS, Menezes RJ, D’souza T, Ipe J. Duration of surgical hand scrub in orthopaedic surgeries. Int J Orthop Sci. 2017; 3 (3): 34-6.
5. Stilo A, Troiano G, Melcarne L, Gioffrè ME, Nante N, Messina G, Laganà P. Hand washing in operating room: a procedural comparison. Epidemiol Biostat Public Health. 2016; 20; 13 (3).
6. Nsekambabaye JP. Operating room nurse’s knowledge, attitude and practice of sterile techniques in Rwanda referral hospitals (Doctoral dissertation), 2017.
7. Mahmoud MH, Asaad AM, Qureshi MA. Hand rubbing and scrubbing in relation to microbial count among surgical team members in a Saudi Hospital. J Am Sci. 2013; 9 (7): 457-64.
8. Malik R. Assess the knowledge and practice regarding scrubbing technique among staff nurses working in operation theatres. The Pharma Innovation J. 2019; 8 (6): 1260-1264.
9. Ezzat A, Safdar MM, Ahmed I. Are we following the WHO recommendations for surgical scrubbing? Scott Med J. 2014; 59 (4): 214-9.
10. Labrague LJ, Arteche DL, Yboa BC, Pacolor NF. Operating room nurses’ knowledge and practice of sterile technique. J Nurs Care, 2012; 25; 1 (4): 1-5.
11. Abraham SP, Deva R, Babu V. The knowledge and practice of operating room nurses regarding sterile technique in a tertiary hospital. South Ind. 2016; 5 (3): 63-.
12. Khan A, Nausheen S. Compliance of surgical hand washing before surgery: Role of remote video surveillance. J Pak Med Assoc. 2017; 1; 67 (1): 92-6.
13. Singh A, Sen S, Tomar AS, Aron N. Operation Theater Occupancy. Ocular Infect: Prophylaxis Manag. 2017, 30: 38.
14. Loison G, Troughton R, Raymond F, Lepelletier D, Lucet JC, Avril C, et al. Compliance with clothing regulations and traffic flow in the operating room: a multi-centre study of staff discipline during surgical procedures. J Hosp Infect. 2017; 96 (3): 281-5.
15. Schwartz X, Schmitz M, Safdar N, Pop-Vicas A. Adherence to surgical hand antisepsis: Barriers and facilitators in a tertiary care hospital. Am J Infect Control, 2018; 1; 46 (6): 714-6.
16. Qorbani A, Khime Sari Z, Mollapour A, Shafikhani M. Comparison of two methods to reduce the microbial load Betadine and rubbing skin surgery surgical team. Iran J Microbiol. 2009; 3: 55-60.
17. MosadeghRad AM, Khalaj F. The impact of quality management in reducing surgical site infection: an action research. Med Council J. 2015; 33 (2): 110-8.
18. Kim SS, Jeoung KH. Effects of security policies, security awareness of hospital employee to patients’ personal information protection. Indian J Sci Technol. 2015; 8: 21.
19. Liu LQ, Mehigan S. The effects of surgical hand scrubbing protocols on skin integrity and surgical site infection rates: a systematic review. AORN J. 2016, 1; 103 (5): 468-82.
Allied Specialities/Nursing Section