Hematological Profile of Patients with Dementia in South Punjab
Objectives: A case-control study was conducted to find the prevalence of abnormal blood indices and electrolytes in patients with dementia.
Material & Methods: The levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, electrolytes, and ESR were determined from the biochemistry lab. A t-test was applied to see the significance of the difference between each dementia patient group (Alzheimer Disease-AD, Parkinson’s Disease-PD, and Frontotemporal Dementia-FTD) with the control group for each CBC and electrolyte parameter
Results: In each patients’ groups (AD, PD, and FTD), the mean value of every erythrocyte was lower than the normal range. A significant difference existed for each erythrocyte between dementia patients and controls, except MCHC. Low levels were observed in neutrophils in all groups of dementia including control group. Very high levels were observed in ESR in all groups of dementia. Significant differences existed in the WBC levels between controls and AD as well as PD patients, in platelets between the control group and FTD patients, and in ESR in each group of dementia patients vs. control group. Normal values observed in all groups of dementia patients as well as in the control group.
Conclusion: We found low levels in erythrocytes in cases of Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and frontotemporal dementia. Age-related changes to hematological indices especially related to RBCs, and inflammatory mediators like cytokines, hamper the microcirculation in the cerebral tissue leading to micro-infarcts or microbleeds which cause neuronal insults and parenchymal damage.
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