Hematological Profile of Patients with Dementia in South Punjab

  • Faiza Khalil Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University
  • Noreen Samad Department of Biochemistry, Bahauddin Zakariya University
  • Sohaib Hassan Nishtar Medical University, Multan
  • Muhammad Ali Qureshi Department of Neurology, Nishtar Medical University (NMU), Multan
  • Ahsan Numan 3Department of Neurology, King Edward Medical University (KEMU), Lahore – Pakistan
Keywords: Alzheimer Disease, Electrolytes, Leukocytes, Parkinson’s Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia


Objectives:  A case-control study was conducted to find the prevalence of abnormal blood indices and electrolytes in patients with dementia.

Material & Methods:  The levels of erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, electrolytes, and ESR were determined from the biochemistry lab. A t-test was applied to see the significance of the difference between each dementia patient group (Alzheimer Disease-AD, Parkinson’s Disease-PD, and Frontotemporal Dementia-FTD) with the control group for each CBC and electrolyte parameter

Results:  In each patients’ groups (AD, PD, and FTD), the mean value of every erythrocyte was lower than the normal range. A significant difference existed for each erythrocyte between dementia patients and controls, except MCHC. Low levels were observed in neutrophils in all groups of dementia including control group. Very high levels were observed in ESR in all groups of dementia. Significant differences existed in the WBC levels between controls and AD as well as PD patients, in platelets between the control group and FTD patients, and in ESR in each group of dementia patients vs. control group. Normal values observed in all groups of dementia patients as well as in the control group. 

Conclusion:  We found low levels in erythrocytes in cases of Alzheimer disease, Parkinson’s disease, and frontotemporal dementia. Age-related changes to hematological indices especially related to RBCs, and inflammatory mediators like cytokines, hamper the microcirculation in the cerebral tissue leading to micro-infarcts or microbleeds which cause neuronal insults and parenchymal damage.



1. Wyss-Coray T. Ageing, neurodegeneration and brain rejuvenation. Nature. 2016;539(7628):180-6.
2. Bannach MA, Caetano ML, Teles Filho RV, Matozinho HH, Morais LC, Cavalcante JE, Naves WN, Ramos AP, Souza WS. A literature review on dementia diagnosis. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2015;357:e132
3. Hendrie HC. Epidemiology of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1998 Mar 1;6(2):S3-18.
4. Ebly EM, Parhad IM, Hogan DB, Fung TS. Prevalence and types of dementia in the very old: results from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging. Neurology. 1994;44(9):1593-.
5. Chapman DP, Williams SM, Strine TW, Anda RF, Moore MJ. PEER REVIEWED: Dementia and its implications for public health. Preventing chronic disease. 2006;3(2).
6. Fymat AL. On dementia and other cognitive disorders. Clinical Research in Neurology. 2019;2(1):1-4.
7. Fymat AL. Immunotherapy of brain cancers and neurological disorders. J Cancer Prev Curr Res. 2017;8(6):00301.
8. Cerejeira J, Lagarto L, Mukaetova-Ladinska E. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Frontiers in neurology. 2012 ;3:73.
9. Fymat AL. Neurological disorders and the blood brain barrier: 2. Parkinson and Other movement disorders. J Curr Opin Neurol Sci. 2018;2:362-83.
10. Fymat AL. Dementia: A review. J Clin Psychiatr Neurosci. 2018;1(3):27-34.
11. Fymat AL. Alzheimer's disease: prevention, delay, minimization, and reversal. Clinical Research in Neurology. 2018;1(1):1-6.
12. Al-Yaari SA, Al Hammadi FS, Alyami SA. Cortical & Subcortical Dementias: A Psychoneurolinguistic Perspective.
13. Dawson TM, Dawson VL. Rare genetic mutations shed light on the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease. The Journal of clinical investigation. 2003;111(2):145-51.
14. Grossman M. Frontotemporal dementia: a review. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS. 2002;8(4):566.
15. Kumar A, Singh A. A review on Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology and its management: an update. Pharmacological reports. 2015;67(2):195-203.
16. Winchester LM, Powell J, Lovestone S, Nevado-Holgado AJ. Red blood cell indices and anaemia as causative factors for cognitive function deficits and for Alzheimer’s disease. Genome medicine. 2018;10(1):1-2.
17. Wolters FJ, Zonneveld HI, Licher S, Cremers LG, Ikram MK, Koudstaal PJ, Vernooij MW, Ikram MA, Heart Brain Connection Collaborative Research Group. Hemoglobin and anemia in relation to dementia risk and accompanying changes on brain MRI. Neurology. 2019;93(9):e917-26.
18. MedicalNewsToday. What to know about Alzheimer’s disease. Available: Alzheimer's disease: Symptoms, stages, causes, and treatments (medicalnewstoday.com). 2021
19. Shah RC, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, Leurgans SE, Bennett DA. Hemoglobin level in older persons and incident Alzheimer disease: prospective cohort analysis. Neurology. 2011;77(3):219-26.
20. Vitvitsky VM, Garg SK, Keep RF, Albin RL, Banerjee R. Na+ and K+ ion imbalances in Alzheimer's disease. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Molecular Basis of Disease. 2012;1822(11):1671-81.
21. Peters R, Burch L, Warner J, Beckett N, Poulter R, Bulpitt C. Haemoglobin, anaemia, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review. BMC geriatrics. 2008;8(1):1-6.
22. Roberts BR, Doecke JD, Rembach A, Yévenes LF, Fowler CJ, McLean CA, Lind M, Volitakis I, Masters CL, Bush AI, Hare DJ. Rubidium and potassium levels are altered in Alzheimer’s disease brain and blood but not in cerebrospinal fluid. Acta neuropathologica communications. 2016;4(1):1-8.
23. Reimao S, Ferreira S, Nunes RG, Pita Lobo P, Neutel D, Abreu D, Gonçalves N, Campos J, Ferreira JJ. Magnetic resonance correlation of iron content with neuromelanin in the substantia nigra of early‐stage Parkinson's disease. European journal of neurology. 2016;23(2):368-74.
24. Grozdanov V, Bliederhaeuser C, Ruf WP, Roth V, Fundel-Clemens K, Zondler L, Brenner D, Martin-Villalba A, Hengerer B, Kassubek J, Ludolph AC. Inflammatory dysregulation of blood monocytes in Parkinson’s disease patients. Acta neuropathologica. 2014;128(5):651-63.
Original Articles