Prevalence of Post Traumatic Amnesia after Mild Closed Traumatic Brain Injury by Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test

  • SYED SHAHZAD HUSSAIN Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Hospital,
  • USMAN AHMAD KAMBOH Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Hospital,
  • MUHAMMAD ASIF RAZA National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Lahore
  • MUHAMMAD SHAHZAD Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Hospital
  • SAMAN SHAHID National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Lahore
  • NAVEED ASHRAF Department of Neurosurgery, Jinnah Hospital
Keywords: Traumatic brain injury, Post traumatic amnesia, Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test, TBI, PTA, GOAT


Objective: We evaluated the frequency of post traumatic amnesia (PTA) in close mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) via. Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT).
Materials & Methods: A total of 115 patients with mild TBI, both male and female, aged between 14 to 60 years and presenting within the first 6 hours were included. Assessment with the GOAT was performed within 6 hours of admission. Post traumatic amnesia was recorded.
Results: Patients’ mean age was 39.21 years. Majority of the patients (64.34%) were between 36- 60 years of age. Prevalence of post traumatic amnesia (PTA) in closed mild TBI was found in 27.83% patients, whereas, there was no post traumatic amnesia in 72.17% patients. Mean admission GCS was 14.54 and the mean GOAT score was 83.89 in all patients GCS 14/15. There was more prevalence of PTA in age 36-60 years, in male patients and “time since injury” in >3 hours. Mean GOAT was 68.3 in patients (30.19%) with PTA with GCS 14, whereas, mean GOAT was 74.8 in patients (25.80%) with PTA with GCS 15.
Conclusion: 30.19% patients with GCS 14, were positive for PTA (GOAT: 68.3). Overall, 28% patients were positive for PTA. This study concluded that prevalence of post traumatic amnesia in mild TBI is relatively high in our study as compared to other recent reports.
Abbreviations: TBI: Traumatic Brain Injury. PTA: Post Traumatic Amnesia. GOAT: Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test. GCS: Glaucoma Outcome Scale. LOC: Loss of Consciousness. CT: Computed Tomography.


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Original Article