Pattern and Outcome of TBI in Children: An Observational Study at the Children Hospital Lahore


  • Jamal Nasir
  • Ali Asad
  • Saba Benish
  • Faiq Sheikh
  • Laeeq-ur-Rehman
  • Lubna Ejaz



Cerebral edema


Objective:  TBI is one of the leading causes of mortality. To prevent these deaths and injuries epidemiological evidence is required in individual areas. The study aims to understand the common causes of TBI in children in a localized area of Pakistan.

Material and Methods:  This is a descriptive study that enrolled 720 children with head injuries aged 0 to 14 years from September 2021 to June 2022 at UCHS/CHL. Demographic variables like age and gender were noted. Moreover, presenting features of the wound/injury, the cause behind the injury, the severity of the wound, as well as operative procedures that were undertaken, were all recorded.

Results:  Mean age of the children was 5 years. Most of them were boys (69.25%). Many of the head injuries were caused due to falls (78.94%) followed by RTA (20.7%). 62.32% of the patients arrived via ambulance. The mortality rate among severe head injury was 65.09%, moderate head injury was 26.31% and mild head injury was 8.52%. It was observed favorable outcomes were noted in patients who presented to the hospital within four hours of injury. (The p-value is .0026).

Conclusion:  Head injuries among children in Pakistan are primarily due to falls and road accidents. There is a need for betterment in the architecture of housing and road traffic management to prevent TBI-related mortalities. Awareness and logistics need to be provided for the quick transfer of patients with trauma to neurosurgical emergencies.


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