A Study on Ocular Manifestations Seen in Patients with Cerebral Palsy


  • Nazli Gul Department of Ophthalmology, Khyber Medical College/Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar
  • Muhammad Rizwan Department of Neurosurgery, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar
  • Yasmeen Department of Physiology, Frontier Medical & Dental College
  • Momina Haq Department of Physiology Peshawar Medical College, Warsak Road, Peshawar
  • Anam Haq Department of Ophthalmology Kuwait Teaching Hospital/Peshawar Medical College Warsak, Peshawar
  • Imran Ahmed Department of Ophthalmology, Khyber Medical College/Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar–Pakistan




Cerebral Palsy, Ocular, Neurological deficit


Background:  Cerebral palsy (CP) encompasses various neurological disorders like abnormal brain development or permanent brain damage, impacting muscle tone, and motor function. This study assessed ocular manifestations in patients with CP, including visual acuity, refractive errors, ocular alignment, and anterior and posterior eye segments.

Materials & Methods:  This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH) from 1st November 2022 to 30th September 2023. Data collected included detailed medical, ocular, and birth histories, age and gender of the patient, type of CP, visual acuity (VA) if possible, type of refractive error, ocular alignment and motility and anterior and posterior segments examination of the eyes. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 23.

Results:  The study included 40 patients of which twenty-nine (72.5%) were male. The study found spastic CP to be the most prevalent in 23 (57.5%) patients followed by hypotonic CP 12 (30%) and mixed type 5 (12%). VA was examined in CP patients over 4 years with a mean VA of 0.6 and a range of 0.0 to 0.8 LogMAR. Strabismus was found in 33(82.5%) patients with esotropia being the most common in 21 (52.5%) patients, exotropia in 6 (15.0%) patients, and vertical deviation in 6 (15.0%) patients. Ocular motility defect of abduction deficit was found in 2 (5%) patients. Other findings included ptosis in 1(2.5%), nystagmus in 2(5%).

Conclusion:  Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit ocular abnormalities, necessitating regular ophthalmic examinations to prevent life-long visual disabilities/complications and to support their overall development.


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